Abnormal Pap Smear

What is a Pap Smear?

A Pap smear or Pap test is conducted as part of a woman’s routine health examination, after the age of 21 years. It is not a diagnostic test, but is a screening tool used to detect any abnormal cells in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.

A Pap smear helps in early detection of serious medical conditions such as cervical cancer.

An abnormal Pap smear may indicate the presence of infection or abnormal cells called dysplasia, but does not necessarily denote cancer. Abnormal results highlight the requirement of supplementary testing to identify and confirm an underlying problem.

Causes of Abnormal Pap Smear

An abnormal Pap smear may indicate any of the following:

  • An infection or inflammation
  • Herpes
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Dysplasia (abnormal cells that may be pre-cancerous)
  • HPV (human papilloma virus) infection

Presentation of Abnormal Pap Smear

Usually, abnormal cells do not produce any symptoms. Moreover, even the presence of HPV in an abnormal Pap smear is asymptomatic. Therefore, a regular Pap smear is beneficial in early detection of any abnormalities.

An abnormal Pap smear, secondary to a sexually transmitted infection, however, may show the following symptoms:

  • Abnormal discharge from the vagina, such as change in the amount, colour, odour or texture
  • Abnormal sensations such as pain, burning or itching in the pelvic or genital area during urination or sex
  • Sores, lumps, blisters, rashes or warts on or around the genitals

Treatment of Abnormal Pap Smear

Following an abnormal Pap smear, the next step is further testing to confirm the cause of the abnormal cells. A repeat Pap smear or test for human papilloma virus (HPV), a major risk factor for cervical cancer, may also be recommended.

Depending on your age and type of abnormal cells, your doctor may recommend the following treatment options:

  • Cryosurgery: It involves freezing the abnormal cells that are then surgically removed.
  • Cone biopsy or LEEP procedure: In this procedure, a triangular segment of the cervical tissue including abnormal cells is removed, by specially designed instruments, for evaluation.

Abnormal Pap Smear During Pregnancy

A Pap smear during pregnancy is very safe. In case of an abnormal Pap smear, a colposcopy can be performed for further evaluation. However, further treatments are delayed until the birth of your baby. Often, the birth process washes away the abnormal cervical cells.

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